FutureWater: Modeling Indiana’s future water supply
Like many states, Indiana is highly reliant on water for jobs, economic development, and drinking water. In fact, Indiana’s economy is one of the most water reliant states in the country. Water provides Hoosiers with the ability to grow crops, manufacture goods, generate electricity, and support ecosystems as Indiana’s climate has been characterized by plentiful water from rainfall.
With climate change impacting the frequency, intensity, and distribution of precipitation in the Midwest, will there be enough water to support Hoosiers’ economy and way of life in the years to come? To answer this question, Indiana University’s Environmental Resilience Institute commissioned the FutureWater project to forecast water availability across a wide swath of the state through 2100.
Rising temperatures will decrease soil moisture and increase hydrological drought, meaning Indiana’s soil and streams will likely be drier for longer periods of the year, especially during the summer.
Surface water variability
While annual precipitation levels will be about the same, there will be more rain in the winter and spring and less in summer and fall, leading to greater variability in surface water levels throughout the year.
Decreased water availability
Increased temperatures will contribute to higher levels of evaporation and less water for streams and agricultural use.
What is FutureWater?
Indiana University researchers developed a highly detailed model of Indiana’s largest watershed, the Wabash River Basin, which covers about two-thirds of the state, to better understand how changes in climate will affect surface water and soil conditions.
To promote collaborative research and inform water stakeholders throughout the state, IU researchers and staff created the FutureWater science gateway, a public interactive data portal that allows users to explore projections under several different climate scenarios.
How was the Wabash River Basin model created?
The model combines Indiana-specific datasets, including elevation, land use, land cover, soil types, and streamflow, with hydrological modeling software produced by the US Department of Agriculture and an ensemble of climate models provided by researchers at the University of Notre Dame and applied in the latest Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment Report.
IU researchers developed the regional-scale watershed model on IU's formidable computing infrastructure, including the Big Red series supercomputers.
What information is available through the FutureWater science gateway?
The FutureWater science gateway allows users to view projected changes in precipitation, soil, and waterways for smaller-scale, very localized watersheds at multiple future time periods and under different global carbon emissions scenarios. Results are available as maps and graphs.
Research data are also available to download, giving researchers the opportunity to conduct their own analyses, update the existing model, or run entirely new models.
How can FutureWater data be applied?
Collaborators can run their own models by modifying the input files or mining the huge caches of modeling output files stored on IU’s supercomputing infrastructure to answer questions related to their own disciplines.
Changing the way research is communicated
By making FutureWater data publicly available and accessible, ERI is striving to prepare Indiana for environmental change by connecting experts and government leaders in the state to critical planning resources.
Here are a few ways FutureWater can be used:
- General public: Citizens, policymakers, and others can analyze the projections for their community and plan accordingly.
- Education: Teachers, professors, and researchers can work with their students to conduct research projects using FutureWater data.
- Expert stakeholders: Government management offices, industry professionals, environmental groups, and external researchers can work with the FutureWater team to access the model and run their own analyses.
- ERI: ERI researchers are working to incorporate the data into their own research in the fields of migratory ecology, invasive species, green infrastructure, the Hoosier Resilience Index, and more.
- Agriculture and land use: Managers and farmers can see the predicted water availability and make management and planning decisions using the data.
What is next?
- Periodic updates: More robust datasets will be input into FutureWater to increase forecast accuracy as they become available.
- Interactive tools: The FutureWater team is working to create new tools to communicate model results to non-technical audiences. The team is also working with users to build custom tools that suit specific needs.
- Outside models: People in multiple sectors that work closely with hydrologic modeling can use all the FutureWater framework has to offer. The team will work with these power users to help them run their own models to prepare for the environmental changes to Indiana’s water resources.
FutureWater: A New Resource from ERI
Description of the video:>> All right, well, welcome everybody to this special webinar from the Environmental Resilience Institute. Today's topic is going to focus on future water which is a new resource, or a website that was released just a few months ago. My name is Andrea Webster. I'm the implementation manager at the Environmental Resilience Institute, and coordinator of this webinar series.
So before we get started, I wanna let you know that everyone's muted. You're able to unmute yourself if you'd like to ask a question, but we ask that you not, you save that option until the end. But if you have a question in the middle of the webinar that's urgent or clarifying, please type it into the chat box, which you can access by hovering your mouse over the webinar screen.
And you'll see a chat function pop up. So we are recording today's webinar. And so we will send you an email probably later in the week with a link to where you can access that webinar and share it with all of your colleagues and friends. And with that, I'm very pleased to introduce the director of the Environmental Resilience Institute, Janet McCabe, who is going to be today's webinar moderator.
>> All right. Thanks, Andrea. And welcome, everyone. I think we have a record number of attendees this time, which is just fantastic. We're really excited about today's presentation. We'll hear from the key people who actually created this amazing tool called FutureWater. Chen Zhu, with support from Marlon Pierce has created a detailed model of Indiana's largest watershed, the Wabash River Basin.
And they've placed that model in a publicly accessible format for everyone to use. The model simulates precipitation, soil water content, stream flow and a number of other parameters through the year 2100 under different future climate scenarios. And what what I'm excited about today, this is a little bit of a different sort of webinar than our usual webinars.
Is that this tool has been created a lot of work, has gone into creating this tool. And I'm just really excited about the different ways I'm sure people are gonna find to use this tool. And the first time that Chen and Marlon showed me this I said, well, we've got to get people in Indiana who focus on water issues.
People from the ag community, people from the local government, everybody to see this tool so that we can let a thousand flowers bloom about the way it could be useful to people. So great to have you all here today. One of the things that we're gonna do as part of that effort to make this tool most useful to people is send you a survey right after the webinar before you've forgotten everything and moved on to the next.
To ask you for information for your ideas about how you think you might use the tool, and so please watch out for that and please do send it into us. Okay, so just quickly for those of you that might be new to our webinar series or to the Environmental Resilience Institute.
We are an institute created a couple of years ago by IU as part of the Prepared for Environmental Change, Grand Challenge. We focus on bringing the power of IU's academic resources, to help Indiana become more resilient in the face of climate change. We recognize that this is an interdisciplinary team effort, and that the university has to partner with lots of people outside the university in order for us all to be effective.
In particular, Andrea Webster and I have worked on developing a number of tools and resources specifically targeted towards local governments, although, of course open to everybody. Those include this webinar series, the Hoosier Resilience Index and the Environmental Resilience Institute Toolkit. Two resources that I would urge you to check out if you're not familiar with them.
We also at IU and through the initiative are supporting a lot of environmental and climate journalism and communication through our In This Climate podcast which is really fun actually. And our Indiana environmental reporter, this webinar is actually not part of our regular webinar series. Our regular webinars are the second Wednesday of every month from 12:00 to 1:00.
And they are typically on resilience, climate change and environmental change related topics that have been suggested to us by local governments. So please check out our upcoming webinars. We actually have a couple of, we pivoted pretty quickly to change the topics of the upcoming webinars to things that perhaps are a little bit more relevant to the COVID-19 crisis that we're gong through.
And I think Andrea might have a slide that shows what those are. The next one will be about communication through local governments. And then our one in May, really getting some experts on to talk about the connections between diseases like the virus and environmental change or climate change.
Economic value preparedness and resilience. One of the things that we've heard from local governments a lot is that they really need help in understanding the costs and benefits of different resilience activities. And then right when we might be having some extreme heat, we will have a webinar on extreme heat.
We are recording as Andrea said, all of our webinars are archived. So if you think that there's somebody that would have enjoyed listening to this today, you can certainly give them the link or watch it yourself. We all are finding more ways to look at our screens these days.
We have a lot of people registered for today, including a lot of new organizations. We're really thrilled to see that. So thanks for spreading the word. Okay, I'm gonna introduce both of our speakers, and then I'll just turn it over to them and they will handle the presentation of between the two of them.
As Andrea said, if you have chat questions, stick them in the box and we'll get to them, and we'll have time for questions at the end. So, Dr. Chen Zhu is a professor in IU's earth and atmospheric sciences department. He studies the chemistry of water and its reactions with minerals and rocks.
His research has addressed water quality, such as what chemicals are in water. How did they get there, and where they're going to end up? His research has also addressed water quality, such as how much water recharges an aquifer and whether the amount of withdrawal is environmentally sustainable. He studies contamination of surface and groundwater, large scale numerical models of water flow and contaminant transport.
He led the future water project, and we're just thrilled to have him here today. Marlon Pierce's director of IU Cyber Infrastructure Integration Research Center. And I'll just tell you that most of the stuff that Marlin says I do not understand, but I know it's really important. His work supports computational and data driven science.
He investigates the development of science gateway technologies, that provide science centric user services, and interfaces for advanced computing infrastructure. The focus of his work is to adapt web and cloud scale distributed system approaches to the needs of communities of scientific researchers. Marlon's team led the implementation of the future water site which you will see in detail today, and we'll see what an amazing.
Creation it is. Marlin received his PhD from Florida State University in 1998 in computational condensed matter physics, so welcome to both of you. Thank you for joining us today. And Chen I will turn it over to you.
>> Thank you, Janet. Can you hear me Andrew? Okay, so I'm going to share my screen.
Andrew, can you see my screen and can you hear me?
>> So we can see your presentation view.
>> Okay, yes.
>> And we can hear you.
>> You cannot hear me because you muted me?
>> No, we can hear you.
>> Okay, you can hear me. Okay, great.
>> I can't see the actual, I'm seeing the double slides with your notes.
>> You see my notes?
>> Yeah, instead of the actual presentation.
>> If you have two screens, it's possible you share the wrong screen.
>> Okay, so I'm-
>> You might have to stop and and reshare-
>> Okay, yeah, I'm showing screen again. Let me see it, move this, all right. Yeah, I think that you are correct. Let me see. Screenshare has failed to start.
>> Okay, well I can try sharing your slides for you, but keep trying.
>> No, let me try again.
Just a second, that we should be fine.
>> Okay, so, can you see me now?
>> Okay, so you can hear me, you can see me, the PowerPoint presentation.
>> Yep, that's great.
>> Okay, yeah, okay, good morning everyone. My name is Chen Zhu and that general thank you for the introduction.
My climbing partner inquires, I thought to my own peers and he is here too. And okay, so I have lived in the state of Indiana for 16 years now, I think I'm become a Hoosier. I'll be very Down to earth and just to tell you directly, what is the futurewater.indiana.edu.
Okay, what is the future water? So I want you directly go into this. First of all, we developed a high to logical model that is for the Wabash basin to the year 2100 end of this century. So here is the Wabash River Basin. And so this is kind of a natural boundary.
The state lines administrative boundary. And the Wabash River originated in northern Indiana. And here, Ohio and for most of the state. And then you see that the Labor Basin covers a little bit of the Illinois and a tiny bit of Ohio, and you see my cursor when i move the mouse, okay, great.
And then so now, the Wabash flows into the Ohio river here. And the Ohio flows into Mississippi, and Mississippi discharged into the Gulf of Mexico. And you know all that but I just want to remind you that we are a bigger contributor of the new trends that discharged Gulf of Mexico.
So this is what is covered. The model cover the Wabash River Basin that is the most of the Indiana. And that this is a hydrological model, right. It's a physical model. So they have a lot of physical data in that, that including topography. Land cover/land use, the soil type distribution in this Wabash, the hydrography that means the network of the streams and we also have the stream flow data.
And all those data sets are available from federal agencies, and some from the state agency. So those are all data downloaded from federal agencies. And those are the model import, and that you can see this is also a forecast model, right? To the end of century, year 2100.
So we needed to have a climate forecast. On that we obtained from University of Notre Dame. And this is the paper we published in 2018, and this climate model is the same climate data that Purdue University and that other university teams put into this Indiana Climate Assessment Report.
But here, the climate model is not only one model, actually they have 10 different models, Notre Dame, there are more than 10 models. So in the technical word it's called ensemble of climate model. And you can see they have three different communists. ICP 2.6, ICP 4.5, and ICP 8.5, is a different kind of scenarios, right, like we are predicting future so have different kinds of scenarios.
And this is the pen different models prediction from the University of Notre Dame. And the RCP here, stands for Representative Concentration Pathways. So, the median projection is a 4.5. And the high emission scenario is 8.5. Again, this is a Notre Dame data and put into the Indiana climate change impact assessment report by Purdue.
And here they use some mental first, mental for tissue how the climate is going to change. So if this is the summer of Indiana present or in the recent past, by middle of the century in the high CO2 emission scenario in a summer will feel more like Arkansas.
And by the end of the century, we'll feel more like Huston, Texas. So they are predicting about 10 degrees Fahrenheit hotter in the summer in this high emission scenario. So, our concern here is water. Will Indiana had enough water in the middle century, the end of the century?
And we know that the water cycle, here the cotton water cycle be very sensitive to temperature changes, and the precipitation changes. And that's the motivation, right, for our study. We want to know whether there gonna be enough water in the future. We are in doubt with a lot of water, well, we're lucky about that compared to other places in the world.
So we use the software called a SWAT, soil water assessment tool. This is a software developed and distributed by department of agriculture. So we choose to use that software because this is a well documented software package and it has gone through quality control and quality assurance. It's mostly the federal government developer software and the work right is required.
And it has a very large user base, like 20,000 people in the world so the non computer bugs already worked out. So, we did not want to use a software package from a brilliant graduate student at IU. But nobody knows what's in the entire software, and there's no documentation about that.
That's not good. So we choose to use a software package that is developed and distributed by the US Department of Agriculture, and it's very well documented. And then we run this software on IU's use supercomputers. As many of you know that IU have wonderful, powerful supercomputers. We have a big web 2, we now have big web 3 and bigger web 200.
And you needed this kind of power, or to do solid simulations to calibrate the model. And so we run this model on IU supercomputers. You also need a lot of storage spaces because The hydrological cycle is modeled on daily basis. So you have a 100 years on them or 30 years stand by every day.
Also you see that you have ten different climate models, so under two different scenarios of our climate. So actually we have 61 models all together. So we a lot of input data, very large amount of input data, but we also have a humongous amount of output data right, from these two models.
So you need kind of the IUs cyber infrastructure to do that. And this is where Marlins group contributed greatly, that we developed a workflow that we can reproduce a model or update the model very quickly. But more importantly is that unlike most of this kinda research you have seen at the universities, we went one step further and devoted a lot of our efforts to visualize the modeling output and also output are available download.
So now I wanna directly go to this site, futurewater.indiana.edu and show you Modeling results, which are visualized as a map. So I probably have to switch the screen in order to show you that. So let me stop and put a screen this. Okay, so I need to share a different screen, here now.
All right, so Andrea can you see my screen?
>> I can.
>> Okay, everybody can?
>> All right. So this is the site, futurewater.indiana.edu and when you get on the site there's one button here to say learn about a project. So you want to know the scope of the project you want to the team and the publications you can put that, but if you click this button on the right, say explore modeling forecast, and that will lead you to the modeling output.
Okay, so you can see the map and you're right. Okay, so this is the Wabash River Basin under the little polygons and sub basin. And you can see we put to the modeling output on the web, is a free access to everyone. Everyone has Internet you can access that.
So now want to draw your attention to the tab called a variable. So we can see we can plot of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil water content, groundwater recharge, base flow, stream flow and yield. Right, and so now it shows precipitation, the burgundy colored means the differences, the reduced percentage compared to historical mean.
And the historical mean as shown here is the average of 1971 to year 2000. So those are color coded, the blue shows you increase and this color shows you decrease. And this other predictive future minus average historic average and divided by historic average. So you can see, this is a Notre Dame's prediction of precipitation.
And they just slightly increase. So now on this tab is annual, right? Or you can choose different models. And on this tab is different time periods, so now I'm in 2020, 2050, you can also choose say in one century, and you see the map refresh itself. So by the end of the century we see this part of the state we see higher precipitation, right?
And here you see different emission scenarios, right? This is the medium scenario, highest scenario. On this menu, you see the smaller right heart units or the medium or the large, right? And so you have all these choices. Okay, so now I'm reading the end of the century, 2020, 80s, and medium scenario in the small based in the units, and there's precipitation and see here is our results in terms of stream flow, right?
So this is the stream flow. And you can see here we have a little bit increased but this park right we have a large decrease and also the percentage of changes against the historical mean and also data, you can view the data available, right? And there's also this a stream flow, we can see what the yield, and you can see that.
You can also get into a specific center basin, let's say booming then I'm leaving booming there. I want to see a basin that close to booming there, so I just click it, right? And the data show up. So those are the water yield in this particular basin which is a highlight basin see here and those are the values in terms of different.
Emission scenario, different time period. You see the dots here are the ensemble of climate models, right? Not so damn model, they did not give us one model, they gave us ten and that we take the temperature, precipitation wind speed from their model. And this is a range of the models to do that, and this box is the average of thes 10 models and this is what I've plotted in the map.
So we've done this forecast model. We developed this in maps and graphs. And then make it available for you to access, and also here you see the tab here. So the interactive map, interactive plots but also data downloads. So all those modeling data are also available for you to download, those are the summer basins.
So now I'm going back to the PowerPoint slides, And you switch to the screen. All right, so I think I need to get rid of this. All right. All right. Okay, I'm there. Do you see those PowerPoint slides?
>> Yes, we can.
>> Okay, thank you. So now you see that we've developed a model on our use of supercomputers and waste.
There's humongous amount of data that's spit out of this model. You have daily those values for different models. It's all stored on supercomputer with the interpretive tools that visualize model results. And also the beta available for download. And this is all I have, through the collaboration with Marlins group, we are able to use the fantastic sub infrastructure at IU or use a supercomputer, and we also automated this workflow.
So that's where the modeling results are. If you're looking for it, I strongly urge you to visit this site. It's the futurewater.indiana.edu, everybody can have access. Now the model, the hydrological model behind this website is published in a peer reviewed paper by Jennifer Dierauer and myself. And Jennifer was a postdoc working at IU, work with me.
And now she is assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. And you can download the paper from my research website. It's hydrogeochem.earth.indiana.edu. We will probably make available these PowerPoint slides as a PDF file for you as well. And this is a published in the peer reviewed General Water.
And this is a very respected journal. And also I can send you this article to well known hydrogeologist that I'm familiar with and they tell me that Jennifer did a great job on developing this model. We have another publication. This just come out like a week ago, this by a PhD student.
And this is published in the Bulletin of International Association of Hydrologic Sciences. This is also a peer reviewed paper and you can download from the research website that I pointed out to you. So if you want to know the technical details, on how Jennifer and I did it, you can read those papers.
And if time permits, I will also go into the technical details. Okay, so you know what kind of models we developed and where you find the results and where the papers are, what are the takeaway points. What are the major conclusions from these models and those are summarized by Jennifer.
Basically her model shows that we will see more frequent soil moisture and hydrological droughts. That means less water available in streams, and that's particularly in the summer months. And not only more frequent but also more severe droughts. So this conclusion, in a sense, it's like this. It say, we will have about the same or slightly higher precipitation in Indiana in the future, both for the median and high emission scenario.
However, we still have less water available in soils for crop growth and in streams for our use. Why? Two reasons. One, the temperature is going to be higher. So therefore we have more evaporation, right? We have slightly high precipitation, but the evaporation is going to be higher. And for the hydrogeologist, hydrologist in the audience, you know that evaporation is a huge term in the water budget.
A slight increase of evaporation, you have a large increase in terms of the amount. And also we all have some kind of a seasonal shift, because the temperature warmer, so we see the season going to shift into the winter and because of the seasonal shift, we will have more water to evaporate in winter and early spring.
So all that result in the consequence that we will have significantly lower amount of soil moisture and stream flow. And also, we increase the drought. So this is basically the results from Jennifer's modeling study. Now, this results are not surprising and it's consistent with other studies, original studies like this.
Same kind of message, you have increased temperature, you offset the water cycle and seasonal shift can have a large effect on the hydrological cycle as well. We probably do not need to do this kind of a supercomputer model to understand this hydrologic cycle changes. But now, you see we put it into the consequence of the effect, quantitatively In space and in time.
In space, you see the subbasins, right? Not all in this Wabash basin is the same. Some areas you see more effect, some area you actually see increase of soil moisture. And gonna mute my phone. And the streamflow, so they're spatially different, and also different time and different scenarios.
And so the general conclusion itself, it's nothing shocking, nothing out of ordinary, but the modeling exercise put into quantitatively and quantitatively in space and in time. All right, so this is a main conclusion of this. And if I have time, I will tell you more about the technical details.
Okay, So you can see here that we don't want to just publish a paper and let the paper collect dust, right? There are so many papers published every year according to the National Science Foundation. It's 2.3 million papers are published about science and engineering every year. And here, certainly we want to leverage our use cyber infrastructure and use these hydrological models.
We will make it available to the public. Save what the future water.indiana.edu is available to everyone. We want to make results you can download and available to the state agencies and other group, NGO groups. And also available for what Marlon call the power users and if you are hydrogeology in the audience.
I work for state agencies. If you want to run your own model, you can contact me and Marlon and we can set up account for you at IU, and you can run your own model to do that. It's also a live model, it's not just done once. It can be updated very easily, and I say that we collaborated with Marlon's group.
We have workflow. We have a pre-processor, post processor. The model can be reproduced very easily. So obviously, the biggest uncertainty that you already can see is the climate model, right? We have ten different models, ensemble climate models that predict the different temperature, precipitation. And there are some new models going to come out this year.
And when they come out, we can update the hydrological projections, right. And then we have newer versions that include groundwater and nutrients in the future. And there are some doctoral students working on that. Well, so we have presented all these results, nice maps and graphs. Can you believe the model or any model?
Do you believe any model even work? Well, according to Einstein, that a theory or model is nobody believes, except the person who made it. An experiment is something everybody believes, except the person who made it. And that's very true, both experiments and models. And if you only believe experiments, why you should do some experiments yourself.
And another very famous quote about model is by this British statistician, and all models are wrong, some are useful. And I think it is very important point is that a software package is developed and distributed by USDA. And they have gone through Quality Assurance/Quality Control process. And it's not like, say, I had a graduate student who developed a code and nobody has checked on him or her.
This is a product that has been used in regulatory environments and can be used in regulatory environments. We are a university, we're not a consulting firm. Part of our mission is education, right? So we have to develop from simple models to more complicated models. So now, first of all, and now we have the calibration with historical observation.
And you can see that a PhD student just published a paper. We had a postdoc, Jennifer predicted to the end of the century. We have new doctoral students now including groundwater and probably well including more sophisticated models, more challenging models to simulate as well. Like HydroGeoSphere can see the interaction between the hydrocycle under the climate or regional climate.
So there are new work underway that we are not just done the model, published and done. We want to improve it. We're also developing teaching modules. Now, there's a lot of literature or podcasts seems like by Nobel laureates in behavioral sciences, like Daniel Kahneman and Richard Thaler. And according to them, climate change is very, very difficult, a challenging pedagogical project.
It's something amorphous, right? And usually people use a mental first aid, polar bear is standing on the ice. And the Greenland ice is gonna melt and climate sea level going to rise. That does not do well with IU student. I have been teaching here for 16 years, right?
So we are developing tourism, this future water site that provide a good tool. We have developing exercise now to dedicate 12 students and undergrad students to see the subbasin nearest to your hometown and see how the climate impacts on water resources. And we have 92,000 undergrads at IU, and those kind of tool is very helpful.
And like I said, I'm working with a K-12 education specialist Dr. Adam Scribbler. And I know my students in my class, my undergrad student in my class and they develop K-12 education kits. And that'll be available very soon. So this is a site not only for research, but also for education as well.
To study climate adaptation, of course, first, you need to have the climate model with the temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and then you need the water. And once you have water, you can do all the other things, right? So the hydrological model is kind of what I call the upstream research data.
And that can be used for this. Here, I wanna show you that we accomplished this with a very, very large team at IU and that including there PI under the direction of director, Janet McCapp, and we have this Implementation Special Manager and Julian know that I know the other people's and model has a bigger group, I have another slide.
And also you see we handle a tremendous amount of research data and using geographic information system and that's the group they do this. We also work with the Indiana Geological Survey and the US Geological Survey in Indianapolis. And the professor at IU Conservation Law Center they kindly provide guidance and review of the document first.
So it's a really, really effort of a very big team and particularly Jennifer, she done the bulk of hardwork and she's she's brilliant. So I choose this because you can say this a SWAT model but it's insulting in some way it's really Jennifer's model on our SWAT model.
It's like you have a slot is like open. You wanna bake a cake is really you are the person baking the cake. So this is really Jennifer's model on SWAT model, in that case, and like so that model has a very, very large group and it's really the collaboration.
Whether they are group, that we are bringing this unreadable data output into the visualization and we also look into the workflow, that we can automatically update in the future. This is slides prepared by Marlin. I think I was stopped here, I have a lot of technique slides, but I don't have the time.
So what are we going to do in the future about FutureWater and that's what a model put together. Well we need to update. So obviously, the climate-to-model drives the hydrological cycle and when the new climate-to-model become available this year, or next year then we will update that. And Marlin's group is going to build more interactive tools.
And it will empower users to their own tools. And then if you're a power user, you are in a hydrogeologist working for a state agency you want to use a model. You can contact a Marlin and myself we'll see whether we can open an account on. I use a supercomputer to help you to run your own model.
I think it's our stop here. And if I have a chance, if you want to know, questions about specific technical aspects, and I have the slides for that, how about end here?
>> That sounds perfect.
>> We can share your email address too when we send out a follow up email.
>> I have very some details what to put into the model where the data from. I can make those slides available this.
>> So thank you so much Chen. I do want everybody to notice that he put a tie on today and I'm just wondering how many people attending actually have a necktie on today.
So thank you for dressing up. We had a couple of questions come in through the chat. And Andrea, I'll let you do those but I wanna start with one that just came to me directly. It's from one of our listeners up in Northern Indiana. And her question is whether there any plans to do this kind of data modeling for other river basins in Indiana.
And I would add on to that question, or how much can people use FutureWater to help answer questions about river basins that are not the water river basin.
>> It's a possible before we have a graduate student now and if they need a good reason that a developer for the northern part and the other great lake.
And as a southern part of that directed discharge Ohio that can be done.
>> But presumably it would be an easier task now that the heavy lifting of creating the model has been done to-
>> A good student can get this done in a couple months.
>> Okay, great.
All right, Andrea, I'll turn it over to you for other questions from the chat room.
>> Great, well, the first question that came in was from Siavosh and Siavosh asks does the model also modeling results that are available on peak stream flow? For example, so called 10-year ,100-year peak discharge estimates.
>> Yes, we have not a process. So we generate a humongous amount of data. We only processed a very small amount. Yes, if you wanted the data to evaluate that, that'd be awesome. We'll be happy to provide it to you.
>> Right, and we had a question coming in from Jeff and he asks, does your modelling consider population growth over time, increase temperature, etc?
Will have potential greater impact as population grows, right.
>> Yeah, no and that's why we, Marlon and his group and my group have collaborated and that we develop this workflow on iOS supercomputer, we can easily update the model. So right now we assume the land use, land cover, your true self and does not change it in the future.
So but we can, we can, we can use some kind of a model to predict the land use change so the time toward the end of the century and that incorporates the population growth, yes.
>> So these two questions are great examples of answers that you could give in a survey when you get it when asks about other things, other uses, other data that might be helpful.
>> Right, like at the USGS office in Indianapolis, they are interested in to re introduce some muscles into the river stream system. And they want to say can you provide the stream water temperature, and that can be done. Some student to run another module and get to the temperature data.
>> So if you have more questions, it looks like we've got a few more coming in here. This is great. So one from Jill asks, you mentioned seasonal shifts in soil moisture and greater evaporation. Are you able to tell us what this might mean for the realities of corn and soybean growing seasons specifically?
>> Someone has more knowledge about the corn soybean growers can take my data and they do the interpretation Right, I agree with that. I think that's an example of how other experts in other fields might wanna use this information.
>> Any questions?
>> Yeah, so feel free to enter more questions you have in the chat function.
Or you can feel free to unmute yourself and just ask the question directly yourself if you'd prefer. You can do that by clicking on the microphone button. If you hover over the screen you'll see a microphone button that says Mute. In the meantime, I'm gonna kinda do a little primer for our survey that's coming out later.
So one of the things that we like to do is take all of this wonderful, fabulous data that Chen and his team has developed and integrate it into the Hoosier Resilience Index. So one of the questions we have for all of you is to think about which of these pieces of data that are available through FutureWater would be most useful in the Hoosier Resilience Index.
So that tool, the index, is specifically designed for local governments to use. Of course anyone is able to access that information. So think about that and what kind of projections could be incorporated for precipitation or stream flow or water yield and what would be most useful.
>> Okay, I think we've worn everybody out, but hopefully you have found this to be interesting.
Please do go to the website and play around. I'm really glad that you walked us through on the live screen a little bit, Chen. So people could get over that first threshold of, my gosh, how do I use this thing? Playing around with it. Let us know what questions you have.
And please do as I said at the beginning, consider joining us for our upcoming webinars or spreading the word. And we were thrilled to have you today. Thank you to Chen, thank you to Marlon. And thanks always to Andrea for being the chief organizer of these. So we will sign off and give you back six minutes of your coronavirus-filled day.
I wish everybody good health. Be careful and take advantage of extra time that you might have in whatever way is meaningful to you.
>> All right, take care, everyone.
>> Take care, everyone. Stay safe.